While newer versions of dd on Ubuntu or the like come with a new option called status=progress, the one included with macOS sadly does not.

A nice way I found to get progress indication whilst still being able to benefit from the huge speed increase in using /dev/rdiskX is to install a tool called pv, also known as Pipe Viewer.

brew install pv

Now, split up your dd command into two, and pipe everything through pv. If you know the size of the input drive, provide that to pv as-well as it will further improve the output. Take this example, where my input drive is 64GB:

sudo dd if=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m | pv -s 64G | sudo dd of=/dev/rdisk1 bs=1m

This will result in a familiar looking progress indicator, as-well as an ETA and transfer speeds, like so:

Alternative method: gdd (works, but slower)

Another way to achieve something similar would be to use brew to install coreutils, which will come with a newer version of dd that supports the status option.

brew install coreutils

All tools installed with this package are named with g prefixed to them, so you can run gdd to use this packages' version of dd.

gdd if=/dev/disk2 of=/dev/disk1 bs=1m status=progress

Sadly, this version of dd lacks support for macOS' "raw" disk support (/dev/rdiskX), which means it will be significantly slower to copy a disk over, but there might be certain scenarios where this method is preferred.

I hope this helps!